## PRECESSION

**The Milky Way is the water of heaven, the spiral circle of the cosmos whose secret is revealed in the Great Cycle of the Precession, the Zero-Point of Solar/Galactic Alignment.**

**This Key marks the zero-point of the Precession.**

**The Dot, or Point represents the absorption of the All, of Creation, into its Origin. The Point correlates with the Origin.**

**Material creation enfolded back into the Source, dissolving manifestation in the ocean of its Origin. The Dot is thus equal to the Circle. It is the Circle, just as each degree or dot of the Circle represents the entire Circle, and consequently the Dot contains all and any possibility of material manifestation.**

**Dragon Tracks - Precession Paradigm**

**The prime paradigm of each era is that of its Age. On December 25, 3117 B.C. a total solar eclipse was visible at Sunrise at the Winter Solstice point, in the era of the global Dragon culture. This date is the Beginning of the Mayan Calendar. It is also the start of the Reign of Me-Sin or Menes, the first Pharaoh King that united Egypt.**

**The beginning of the new calendar marks the most important Geophysical Event of the past five millennia, the Great Flood. One of the causes of the Great Flood could be a close encounter of the earth with the comet, Typhon the Dragon.**

**Dragons are real and the basis of scientific priesthood and royal lineage. The sacred past is a story of sacred dragon or serpent worship. The triangular Dragon Book is essentially a magical astonomical text. Civilization was originally rooted in ancient prehistoric observations of the order of the stars. It tracked time and created calendars, and most importantly allowed predictions of eclipses rooted in the GREAT CYCLE of PRECESSION of the Zodiac, the serpentine ring of the Ecliptic.**

**The Center of the Universe, the Pole Star, as the most important point in the Universe. The Pole Star, the Hole in the Centre, was the entrance to the Other Worlds. Megalithic temples are tuned to this Great Cycle drama in the heavens.**

**The "tuning and untuning of the sky" is an actual astronomical occurrence.**

**The Center of the Universe is not fixed. It moves around in a circle counter the Circle of the Zodiac. The Movement of the Center is called the Precession of the Equinox, and takes about 26,400 years. This movement was already known before the Great Flood occured. Plato called it the Great Year, and each of its "months" is a sign of the Zodiac.**

**Some 6,500 years ago the position of the equinoctial sun was aligned with the band of the Milky Way. This provided an obvious celestial alignment, occurring twice a year on the equinoxes, when the sun would conjunct the Milky Way -- the Bridge Out of Tim -- opening the way out of the plane of the living (the zodiac) and up to the cosmic center and source in heaven. A "breaking asunder" occurred when this great cosmogonic picture began to precess out of alignment. Presumably, the "untuning of the sky" coincided with increasing social tension, leading to greater collective confusion and our descent into history.**

**The earth either wobbles in what is known as the Precession of the Equinox or orbits in a binary star system with the same observable result. This wobble take approximately 25,800 years to go from a beginning point and return to that point. But the earth doesn't really return to the exact point in space because of at least two other factors, the perihelion precession and the obliquity of the ecliptic. Simply put, The Sun appears (as viewed from the earth) to move backward through the stars at the rate of about 1 degree every 72 years.**

**Key numbers of Babylonian-Sumerian mathematics (including the sixty-based system still being used) were derived from astronomical observations, and yield the traditional estimate of precession: 108 x 4 x 60 =**

**25,920 years.**

**The Cycle of the Precession was divided into twelve parts of 2200 years and related to the Zodiac. With every movement into a new part of the Zodiac, society was completely reorganized to the theme of the Sign of the Zodiac.**

**The huge precessional clock does not stop.**

**The axis of the earth slowly changes its orientation in space - either directly due to a precession of earth's polar axis or indirectly as a result of our entire solar system moving around a point x in space.**

**Earth is like a gyroscope. Earth is suppose to precess opposite to its direction of rotation. The period of its complete precession cycle is said to take about 25,800 years.**

**During this Great Year time period, Earth supposedly goes through one retrograding rotation relative to the inertial system of the fixed stars. An additional time interval of one year of about 365 days must occur simultaneously. But since this time interval cannot be substantiated by actual time measurement, the theory of the Earth's precession does not have a proven scientific foundation. But it was accepted by all cultures in antiquity.**

*Hamlet's Mill*describes a cycle within**the precessional shifting of the crossroads of ecliptic and equator**

**. An archetypal triangle, a Grand Trine, is associated with Precession: the Trigon of the Great Conjunction. The revolution of that Trigon is built up by "Great Conjunctions" of Saturn and Jupiter. This Trigon of Great Conjunctions is an instrument by which one could "narrow down" the almost imperceptible tempo of the Precession. To move through the whole zodiac, one of the angles of the Trigon need approximately 3 x 794 1/3 = 2383 years. That comes tolerably near to one double-hour of the greatest "day" of the Precession of 25,900 years.**

**The Zodiac moved from Virgo to Leo (10.000 BC), from Cancer (8700 BC, Scarab, Kheper) to Gemini (6593 BC, Twins, the Two Kingsdoms), From Taurus (Bull, 4435 BC) to Aries (Ram, 2277 BC, Shepherd, Sheep, Khnum) and from Aries to Pisces (Fish, 155 BC) and is now moving into Aquarius. The Story of Religion also moved with the Signs of the Zodiac.**

**A new zodiacal sign was termed to "rise" starting from the day of a great conjunction at the place of the "passage." Our own era, the Age of Pisces, started with a great conjunction in Pisces, in the year 6 B.C..**

**The identification of an "age" with a particular zodiac constellation is based on the sun's position during the vernal equinox. Before 2000 BC, the Sun could have been seen against the stars of the constellation of Taurus at the time of vernal equinox [had there been an eclipse]. Due to the precession of the equinoxes, on average every 2,160 years the Sun appears against the stars of a new constellation at vernal equinox. The current astrological age started when the equinox precessed into the constellation of Pisces, in about the year 150 BC, with the "Age of Aquarius" starting in AD 2600.**

**The myth of the Eternal Return is real. Precession takes roughly 26,000 years for a cycle about the ecliptic pole. The ecliptic North Pole corresponds to the Sun's North Pole. It is the pole of the path the Sun traces about the Earth in the course of the year. The placement of Draco focuses on the Sun, so spiritually the Dragon is associated with worship of the Sun.**

**Dragons that 'fought with the Sun' probably described the celestrial upheaval of large fearsome comets that streaked across the sky with their long tails. They appeared cyclically and broke up upon nearing the sun, some of which collided with Earth. Eclipses were also considered celestial battles between the dark and light.**

**In ancient times the cataclysmic forces of nature were personified as a great cosmic dragon or serpent.**

**Many ancient mythologies, and many god-like characters who appear in world myth, owe their existence to cosmic disasters that occurred in our solar system and which were witnessed by the inhabitants of the Earth. The cataclysmic events (involving comets and exploding planets) were permanently archived in what we nowadays refer to as the "collective unconscious."**

**Dragons were deeply etched in the racial memory of all mankind. Draco in Latin, the Egyptians called the constellation Tanem, the Hebrews called it Tannim, and in Aramaic its name is Tannin.**

**The ancient root,**

*Tan-*has been wrongly translated in the Bible as whale instead of dragon.**Early astrologers believed that when a comet was located in the head of the dragon, that poison was scattered all over the world.**

**Decoding the sky meant connecting the dots of the starry constellations, making star maps, reproducing that heaven on earth in the form of sacred sites, and embodying it in sacred royal lineage. The most ancient lines are symbolically related to the circumpolar constellation Draco, the great Dragon or "crooked" Serpent (Babylonian**

*Sir*).**The winged serpent was a symbol of the Gods of Egypt, Phoenicia, China, Persia, and Hindustan.**

**The serpent is set in the symbol of the "Chalice," or downward pointing triangle, that has long been a womb symbol. In the Far East, this symbol is known as the Yoni. The word "one" derives from this word denoting the female womb. The title-page of THE DRAGON BOOK mimics this Dragon in the downward-pointing triangle and describes magic, treasures and immortality. Ritual swallowing by the snake in the underworld led to the symbolic return to the embryonic state, rejuvination and rebirth in the mystery schools.**

**Roughly 3000 BC, the heavens revolved around the Great Dragon, and so did earthly civilization. Dragons became synonymous with immortality because the celestial dragon was exempt from the cycle of time and because the dragon lineage did not die but was preserved in the noble bloodline. The point of circumpolar rotation, inhabited by the star Thuban or not, became the "Eye of the Dragon". The stars were the witnesses or watchers - the seers. Egyptian rulers wore the Uraeus serpent (Wadjet) as their crown symbol of sovereignty (serpent of life), a link to the celestial Ouroborous.**

**The serpent cult worshipped the esoteric or inner sun, manifested as the biophotonic energy body.**

**This inner light is the realization of our own connection to the greater universe, of our own inner balance and our own growth toward attune to or resonance with the world around us. It is also the part of ourselves and our outer world, which gives life, sustains and gives growth. The dragon and serpent cults inspired megalithic monuments, global dragon and serpent mounds. The most ancient initiatory and healing symbols, the circumpunct, a dot within a circle and/or a cross within a circle symbolize this inner sun.**

**The Great Year cycle of Precession culminates in 2012.**

**The Galactic Center according the Maya and many other cosmic cultures is where time and space have collapsed totally and do not exist. We are aligning with the Galactic Center as we complete the Great Cycle. This alignment is called the second coming of the Christ. It is the Alchemical Wedding. It is when we become One with the higher vibrations from the Galactic Center. Now, as we complete this great cycle, we move through the Galactic Centre beyond birth and death into a higher dimensional being.**

**The symbol of the Ouroboros, the serpent that eats its own tail, refers to a serpent of light residing in the Milky Way. In Hindu myth Vishnu is seen lying on the hundred headed serpent Ananta Sesha. Vishnu represents the center of the Milky Way out of which the consciousness of all that exists emanates. Ananta Sesha, the giant primordial serpent, is the life giving dragon who supports Vishnu on the surface of the Milky Ocean of Immortal life. Vishnu, in human form is seen dreaming as a lotus grows from his navel on which Brahma, the creator is seated. This is a metaphor for the creation of stars and planets from the center of the galaxy.**

**AS ABOVE, SO BELOW: The Fractal Field of Resonating Potential**

**The narrative of the Sky had to be a “**

*rotating*” cyclic narrative because the sky was in constant cyclic motion. Ancient tradition states that heavenly locations had earthly counterparts (”As Above, so Below“). The next step was to project this Narrative on the Sky using highly visible stars as a connection point. In the last step the Sky was projected unto Earth again.**Megaliths (”**

*giant standing stones*“, “*menhirs*“) and related constructions such as cairns and dolmens (chambers of stone), tumuli and barrows (ancient earthworks) and henges and circles were built by ancient man for purposes of Astronomy and Geodetics. Anyone having knowledge of the heavenly stars could thus find his way around on Earth by means of the megaliths, which served both as boundaries and landmarks.**When we measure the Earth in Egypt the number 26,400 miles appears which is the number of Years the Precession of the Equinox takes. A mile in distance upon the earth equals one year of precession, and one degree of distance on the earth, a 360th part of the circumference equals 72 years of Precession of Equinox. In Precession solar and galactic intentionality align.**

**The ancient Scientists not only created a highly advanced Navigation System and a Calendar, they also Mapped this System to a metric systemof Earth. This System was just like the Calendar and the Navigation System implemented all over the world. To Rule efficiently you have to Standardize to predict the future.**

**One of most important Cycles is called the Etanic Cycle In a 780 year period the earth wobbles above the equator to a max of (4) degrees, then wobbles back below the equator to a max of (4) degrees. The full cycle take 1560 years. The 1560 year wobble can be broken down into the four quadrants of 390 years, and to the Mayan Calendar eighth part of 130 years.**

**The constant movement by Earth above and below the equator shifts the exposure of different areas of the planet to annual sun light. It also generates a lot of Tectonic Stress (Earth Quake Storms) from the planet’s core to its surface.**

**The Etanic Cycle has a huge influence on the Climate. Climate changes shift populations of humans and herds all around the Globe. To Rule the World you have to know when the Big Troubles are Coming.**

**The year 3117 BC was a special year not only because of the special alignment of Sun and Earth. There are 5280 Feet to the Mile. This number is 0ne fifth of the duration of the Precession Cycle. The periodicity of the well-known Economic Kondratiev Cycle is 5280/100**

**=**52.8 years.**Synchromystic**

**The number Five is a very important number. It is the number of the Pentangle and the Quintessence (Chi, Ether, Prana). Five is the Number of the Center. The Ancient Scientists divided the Precession Cycle into Five Stages. The Stage that started at 3117 BC was the last Phase before a new Golden Age would start. It was the Fifth Age of the Precession.**

**3117 BC was the start of Human Civilization. It was the time of the Establishment of the Old Kingdom, the first Writing in Sumeria, and the first Stellar Observation Systems. The Hindu Kali Yuga (**

*‘The Dark Age*“) begins at this time as well.**Upcoming annular and total eclipses in 2012 occur on May 20 and Nov 13. These with the Winter Solstice are moments of tremendous magical potential and resonant tuning. Magical timing functions like a lens to focus consciousness. Winter Solstice 2012 marks the Precessional magic moment, opening the portal of eternity for those with the secret key -- the right one at the right time, with the right aim. The arrow of Sagittarius points directly to the heart of the galactic core.**

**A***total eclipse*occurs when the Sun is completely obscured by the Moon. The intensely bright disk of the Sun is replaced by the dark silhouette of the Moon, and the much fainter corona is visible. During any one eclipse, totality is visible only from at most a narrow track on the surface of the Earth.**An***annular eclipse*occurs when the Sun and Moon are exactly in line, but the apparent size of the Moon is smaller than that of the Sun. The Sun appears as a very bright ring, or annulus, surrounding the outline of the Moon.

**This winged dragon is the symbolic superstar of The Triangle Book. In***The Book of Lambspring*, it represents the Anima Mundi, or Soul of the World, which is the sum total of planetary existence -- the holographic blueprint on which form is based, the informational level or primal source of being - Zero Point. It is said that medicine providing the gift of youth can be made from its venom.**CIRCUMPUNCT Magic Circle - The prototype of the Eye in the Triangle, a circle with a dot in the middle is a symbol of the sun, the alchemical gold and the sphere of Tiphareth (the heart center) in the Tree of Life and the hydrogen atom. Mirroring the Vedic Bindu point, it encodes the superstructure of the Zodiacal year, of time and space and is the key to the cyclic geometry of the Precession of the Equinoxes. It mirrors the Self or Oneness with the cosmos. The magic circle mirrors the Gnostic circle of the heavens as a portal into sacred time, merging individual and collective consciousness. "As Above, So Below." It is this sacred geometry that encodes the Treasure of The Triangular Book and the secret passed down from Egypt and preserved in Asia.**

**"The small concentric circle is the place which**

**you shall take during these operations. The other circle which is below****is the place to be occupied by your Levite"****This Key marks the zero-point of the Precession.**

**The Dot, or Point represents the absorption of the All, of Creation, into its Origin. The Point correlates with the Origin.Material creation enfolded back into the Source, dissolving manifestation in the ocean of its Origin. The Dot is thus equal to the Circle. It is the Circle, just as each degree or dot of the Circle represents the entire Circle, and consequently the Dot contains all and any possibility of material manifestation.**

**PROTO-METROLOGY**

Earth’s Measure is the Golden Key to Precession

By Iona Miller, 2009

Earth’s Epochs

There is a lost wisdom whose traces are found in ancient natural sciences, including cosmology. The Precession of the Equinoxes is a measure of Earth’s rotational axis (celestial pole) in space. Earth moves around in its orbit and rotates on its axis. But that axis creates a third motion of the Earth, relative to the fixed stars. The stars move across the sky at the rate of about one degree per 72 years.

The modern measure of one such cyclic span or period is 25,771.5 years but there are many variables in the calculation. After one full cycle of 25,771.5 years, the positions of the seasons relative to the orbit are "back where they started."

But other effects -- including wobble, torque, magnitude of the Earth’s tilt and gravitational forces of other heavenly bodies -- also slowly change the shape and orientation of the Earth's orbit. These, in combination with precession, create various cycles of slightly differing periods.

Written history does not encompass even one such cycle as mythological history is less than 10,000 years old. Metrology is perhaps 5000 years old but mankind has been systematically observing the sky for at least 50,000 years. Legendary numbers seem to have originated in Sumerian culture as the result of geodesic and cosmological measurements discovered millennia ago, in the mists of prehistory.

The Sumerians mythologized “divine” numbers as time portals. Metrology and chronology go together as soon as we try to take Earth’s measure in the cosmos. It appears the system was observed or discovered through simple arithmetic, rather than contrived. Precession was the ideal prototype, the vast cosmic standard by which all other things were measured.

Mankind has an inherent love of measuring which is the natural basis of metrology. It has pragmatic survival and social value. Ancient metrology is the science whose evidence is encoded and mirrored in the sacred dimensions of the Pyramids, Stonehenge, and other earthly monuments oriented to the heavens. The numerical code lies behind the layouts of temples and cities and systems of measuring time from megalithic Britain to China and even in the Americas. (Scherz)

Measurement was a sacred system of knowledge established in prehistory, based on observations of cosmic cycles. Standards of measure were framed upon universal principles of number and the geophysical dimensions of the ever-turning Earth. There is no starting nor ending point. Celestial time is virtually inconceivable without the Great Cycle.

Immense Movement

Precession is the gradual shift in the orientation of the Earth's axis of rotation, which, like a wobbling top, traces out a conical shape in a cycle of approximately 26,000 years as it maps the heavens. The Sumerian calendar was based on the 25,920 Precession cycles. The Platonic Year was based on the divine number 2160 (1080 x 2). Plato mentions another divine number in his Republic -- 5040 (2520 x 2).

12 x 2160 = 25920

20 x 108 = 2160

36 x 60 = 2160

2160 + 360 = 2520

2160 + 432 = 2592

The key to the comprehensive analysis of general number behavior is found in the concept of "circular unity." Circular unity is an idea demonstrated by the harmonious interaction of the first six numbers. SIX is the first perfect number, being the sum of its first three digits, or 1 + 2 + 3 = 6.

1 x 2 x 3 = 6; 62 = 36; 36 x 3 = 108; 362 =1296 x 2 = 2592.

The Precession of the Equinoxes was first noticed as a slow but steady slippage through the Zodiac of 1 degree every 72 years. A full cycle was a journey of Earth through all the signs of the Zodiac. The equinoxes move westward along the ecliptic relative to the fixed stars, opposite to the motion of the Sun along the ecliptic.

To complete one cycle of the zodiac--a "Great" or Platonic Year--requires 25,920 years. Dividing this sum by 360 yields the number 432, the root of the mythological count of 432,000 years. However, it is not only mythological, or archetypal--it was discovered by centuries of controlled astronomical observation, even prior to written record-keeping.

Numerical Harmonics

Cosmology, horizon-based astronomy, astrology, architecture, navigation, geography, geometry, mathematics, timekeeping, writing, proportion in art, and musical notation were all related to numerical canon. The ancients encoded their knowledge of the world in their sacred monuments and texts as an esoteric code of numbers, formulas, and proportion.

There are cross-cultural links in units of measure related to sexagesimal fractions of meridian degree. All relate fractionally to the Sumerian cubit. Although no measuring devices survive from Sumeria, the varying values of the Sumerian cubit have been accurately established from the dimensions of buildings, the measurement of bricks, and from cuneiform tablets that record these dimensions.

The most widely acknowledged value of the cubit is taken from that of the half-cubit represented as a rule on the statue of Gudea from Lagash, and given as 248mm. The cubit usually divided sexagesimally into 30 fingers is at times divided into 24 fingers as in the rest of the ancient world. This 24th division of the Sumerian cubit is the Megalithic inch. Obviously this digit is the Sumerian value, 24 to that cubit, 25 to the royal Egyptian and 40 to the Megalithic yard. Units were kept standard in the dimensions of permanent stone monuments. (Neal, 2003)

“The sacred Jewish cubit, that of Moses and Ezekiel, expressed as "a cubit and a hands breadth" refers to the royal Egyptian as the basic cubit. Since a hands breadth is 5 digits, the implication is that 5 such hands comprise the royal Egyptian and 6 the sacred Jewish, this digit is therefore the Megalithic "inch": 15 to the "common" Greek foot, 24 to the Sumerian cubit, 25 to the royal Egyptian cubit, 30 to the sacred Jewish cubit and 40 to the Megalithic yard. There is little doubt that we are regarding a single organization of measurement in what has previously been viewed as quite separate systems.” (Neal)

Ancient religions had pronounced astrological elements, which have defined precessional ages from Taurus through Pisces, and the imminent age of Aquarius. Ancient state temples may have functioned as permanent repositories of standards of measures. Gods, (to whom the temples were dedicated) had characteristic numbers, from which they were indistinguishable.

The exemplar number, 108, is known as the number of the Universe. It also corresponds with the god Brahma, and the seed-syllable AUM or OM. Numbers expressed qualities, not just quantities. Prime numbers figure prominently in the measuring and numerical canons of ancient and modern times.

In the old beliefs, this code, (whose true source is lost in prehistoric antiquity), is always alleged to have a divine origin, from the gods or a god-like man. Lore relating to sacred words or phrases arose, because letters and numbers were interchangable or alphanumeric. The code arises naturally from the inherent structure of arithmetic. This golden code emphasized certain key numbers, which were seized upon by different cultures.

Ancient Metrics

Metrology was the basis for development of both philosophic and scientific attitudes. The divine order of the universe was the central idea of the ancient world, and all belief-systems were enmeshed with it. Metrology provided the foundation of the systematic rational vision of the world. Cosmic order embodied in metrology was the fundamental aspect of ancient thought. Number mysticism was the essential basis of most of their knowledge.

Of course, information about the Universe has always been there, but its availability is limited to those prepared to receive or decode it. Ancient cosmologies were not only models of the physical universe, but representations of a universal mathematical archetype. The numerical canon revealed correspondences between different orders of natural phenomena. Metrology included sacred units for measuring the Universe, units of time, space, weight, and mass (or volume).

Root Gauge

The ancient sacred units of measure come from the principle dimensions of the earth (geodesic or geodetic) and astronomical (or cosmological) constants, such as the Precession of the Equinoxes, and the orbital periods of the observable planets.

Land was measured in Mesopotamia and Egypt by the same “statute foot” we use today. The “geographic foot” is related to the length of a minute of arc at a latitude which corresponds to that found in lands such as northern Egypt. By definition, there are 6000 geographic feet in a nautical mile (one minute of latitude arc on the surface of the earth). 1/10 of a nautical mile is an ancient land measure called the "geographic stade"--600 geographic feet, or 606 (600 + 6) of our common feet. (Stecchini; Scherz)

Geography developed from metrology. Traders and navigators needed to calculate distances and time for travel. This link between measures of length and time united metrology and astronomy, and led to astronomical navigation. Ancient navigators used a sexigesimal method of dividing the horizon, using six (rather than four) cardinal directions.

Widening Gyre

Ancient linear measures expressed fractions of the earth's dimensions (polar diameter, circumference, radius, meridian circumference), generally in units of 12. Thus, we have 360 degrees of latitude, each of 60 minutes of 3600 seconds.

Cross-culturally, ancient units of measure relate proportionately to each other, because the old units (whether Mesopotamian, Greek, Egyptian, Roman, Chinese, etc.) represent fractions of the earth's dimensions. Russian archaeologist Bieliaev, points out that the same weights with the same subdivisions are found in early Rome and India of the third millennium B.C. He traced connecting links to Sumer and Egypt, and found the same units used in medieval Russia.

In ancient times, the Universe meant the observable Universe. For Pythagorean and Platonist thinkers, the patterns of numerical relationships which occur in the processes of arithmetic and geometry were considered the formative influences behind all of nature's phenomena. Numerical patterns were detected in the manifestations and dynamics of nature. Behind this is a philosophy of numbers which express universal relationships.

Although usually superceded by practical arithmetic, there is much to learn from the study of the relationship of number and form. The essence of all matter is dynamic relationships. Number is the 'first paradigm,' the basic ordering principle of nature.

Transient, Eternal or Cyclic?

Many so-called "key numbers of the Solar System" are involved, because key numbers have always stood out for their unique properties. The ancients discovered them through aeons of empirical observations of cosmic cycles. They were capable of observing long-term effects, (such as the precessional cycle), with horizon-based astronomy. Their observations of the divine order were central to the core of their civilizations.

Ancient metrology does provide a clue to what numbers might be interesting to investigate.

#108 as the Hindu number of the Universe is a circular totality which encodes the structure of Epochs or Divine Ages. Since the incremental 'numbers of the ages' are multiples of #108, when enspiralled along 108 axes, the characters 0 - 6480 all align along the zero/108 axis -- they naturally share the same neighborhood when displayed as "Mandalogs" or "Holotomes". (Miller & Marshall, Syndex I)

Earth’s Measure is the Golden Key to Precession

By Iona Miller, 2009

Earth’s Epochs

There is a lost wisdom whose traces are found in ancient natural sciences, including cosmology. The Precession of the Equinoxes is a measure of Earth’s rotational axis (celestial pole) in space. Earth moves around in its orbit and rotates on its axis. But that axis creates a third motion of the Earth, relative to the fixed stars. The stars move across the sky at the rate of about one degree per 72 years.

The modern measure of one such cyclic span or period is 25,771.5 years but there are many variables in the calculation. After one full cycle of 25,771.5 years, the positions of the seasons relative to the orbit are "back where they started."

But other effects -- including wobble, torque, magnitude of the Earth’s tilt and gravitational forces of other heavenly bodies -- also slowly change the shape and orientation of the Earth's orbit. These, in combination with precession, create various cycles of slightly differing periods.

Written history does not encompass even one such cycle as mythological history is less than 10,000 years old. Metrology is perhaps 5000 years old but mankind has been systematically observing the sky for at least 50,000 years. Legendary numbers seem to have originated in Sumerian culture as the result of geodesic and cosmological measurements discovered millennia ago, in the mists of prehistory.

The Sumerians mythologized “divine” numbers as time portals. Metrology and chronology go together as soon as we try to take Earth’s measure in the cosmos. It appears the system was observed or discovered through simple arithmetic, rather than contrived. Precession was the ideal prototype, the vast cosmic standard by which all other things were measured.

Mankind has an inherent love of measuring which is the natural basis of metrology. It has pragmatic survival and social value. Ancient metrology is the science whose evidence is encoded and mirrored in the sacred dimensions of the Pyramids, Stonehenge, and other earthly monuments oriented to the heavens. The numerical code lies behind the layouts of temples and cities and systems of measuring time from megalithic Britain to China and even in the Americas. (Scherz)

Measurement was a sacred system of knowledge established in prehistory, based on observations of cosmic cycles. Standards of measure were framed upon universal principles of number and the geophysical dimensions of the ever-turning Earth. There is no starting nor ending point. Celestial time is virtually inconceivable without the Great Cycle.

Immense Movement

Precession is the gradual shift in the orientation of the Earth's axis of rotation, which, like a wobbling top, traces out a conical shape in a cycle of approximately 26,000 years as it maps the heavens. The Sumerian calendar was based on the 25,920 Precession cycles. The Platonic Year was based on the divine number 2160 (1080 x 2). Plato mentions another divine number in his Republic -- 5040 (2520 x 2).

12 x 2160 = 25920

20 x 108 = 2160

36 x 60 = 2160

2160 + 360 = 2520

2160 + 432 = 2592

The key to the comprehensive analysis of general number behavior is found in the concept of "circular unity." Circular unity is an idea demonstrated by the harmonious interaction of the first six numbers. SIX is the first perfect number, being the sum of its first three digits, or 1 + 2 + 3 = 6.

1 x 2 x 3 = 6; 62 = 36; 36 x 3 = 108; 362 =1296 x 2 = 2592.

The Precession of the Equinoxes was first noticed as a slow but steady slippage through the Zodiac of 1 degree every 72 years. A full cycle was a journey of Earth through all the signs of the Zodiac. The equinoxes move westward along the ecliptic relative to the fixed stars, opposite to the motion of the Sun along the ecliptic.

To complete one cycle of the zodiac--a "Great" or Platonic Year--requires 25,920 years. Dividing this sum by 360 yields the number 432, the root of the mythological count of 432,000 years. However, it is not only mythological, or archetypal--it was discovered by centuries of controlled astronomical observation, even prior to written record-keeping.

Numerical Harmonics

Cosmology, horizon-based astronomy, astrology, architecture, navigation, geography, geometry, mathematics, timekeeping, writing, proportion in art, and musical notation were all related to numerical canon. The ancients encoded their knowledge of the world in their sacred monuments and texts as an esoteric code of numbers, formulas, and proportion.

There are cross-cultural links in units of measure related to sexagesimal fractions of meridian degree. All relate fractionally to the Sumerian cubit. Although no measuring devices survive from Sumeria, the varying values of the Sumerian cubit have been accurately established from the dimensions of buildings, the measurement of bricks, and from cuneiform tablets that record these dimensions.

The most widely acknowledged value of the cubit is taken from that of the half-cubit represented as a rule on the statue of Gudea from Lagash, and given as 248mm. The cubit usually divided sexagesimally into 30 fingers is at times divided into 24 fingers as in the rest of the ancient world. This 24th division of the Sumerian cubit is the Megalithic inch. Obviously this digit is the Sumerian value, 24 to that cubit, 25 to the royal Egyptian and 40 to the Megalithic yard. Units were kept standard in the dimensions of permanent stone monuments. (Neal, 2003)

“The sacred Jewish cubit, that of Moses and Ezekiel, expressed as "a cubit and a hands breadth" refers to the royal Egyptian as the basic cubit. Since a hands breadth is 5 digits, the implication is that 5 such hands comprise the royal Egyptian and 6 the sacred Jewish, this digit is therefore the Megalithic "inch": 15 to the "common" Greek foot, 24 to the Sumerian cubit, 25 to the royal Egyptian cubit, 30 to the sacred Jewish cubit and 40 to the Megalithic yard. There is little doubt that we are regarding a single organization of measurement in what has previously been viewed as quite separate systems.” (Neal)

Ancient religions had pronounced astrological elements, which have defined precessional ages from Taurus through Pisces, and the imminent age of Aquarius. Ancient state temples may have functioned as permanent repositories of standards of measures. Gods, (to whom the temples were dedicated) had characteristic numbers, from which they were indistinguishable.

The exemplar number, 108, is known as the number of the Universe. It also corresponds with the god Brahma, and the seed-syllable AUM or OM. Numbers expressed qualities, not just quantities. Prime numbers figure prominently in the measuring and numerical canons of ancient and modern times.

In the old beliefs, this code, (whose true source is lost in prehistoric antiquity), is always alleged to have a divine origin, from the gods or a god-like man. Lore relating to sacred words or phrases arose, because letters and numbers were interchangable or alphanumeric. The code arises naturally from the inherent structure of arithmetic. This golden code emphasized certain key numbers, which were seized upon by different cultures.

Ancient Metrics

Metrology was the basis for development of both philosophic and scientific attitudes. The divine order of the universe was the central idea of the ancient world, and all belief-systems were enmeshed with it. Metrology provided the foundation of the systematic rational vision of the world. Cosmic order embodied in metrology was the fundamental aspect of ancient thought. Number mysticism was the essential basis of most of their knowledge.

Of course, information about the Universe has always been there, but its availability is limited to those prepared to receive or decode it. Ancient cosmologies were not only models of the physical universe, but representations of a universal mathematical archetype. The numerical canon revealed correspondences between different orders of natural phenomena. Metrology included sacred units for measuring the Universe, units of time, space, weight, and mass (or volume).

Root Gauge

The ancient sacred units of measure come from the principle dimensions of the earth (geodesic or geodetic) and astronomical (or cosmological) constants, such as the Precession of the Equinoxes, and the orbital periods of the observable planets.

Land was measured in Mesopotamia and Egypt by the same “statute foot” we use today. The “geographic foot” is related to the length of a minute of arc at a latitude which corresponds to that found in lands such as northern Egypt. By definition, there are 6000 geographic feet in a nautical mile (one minute of latitude arc on the surface of the earth). 1/10 of a nautical mile is an ancient land measure called the "geographic stade"--600 geographic feet, or 606 (600 + 6) of our common feet. (Stecchini; Scherz)

Geography developed from metrology. Traders and navigators needed to calculate distances and time for travel. This link between measures of length and time united metrology and astronomy, and led to astronomical navigation. Ancient navigators used a sexigesimal method of dividing the horizon, using six (rather than four) cardinal directions.

Widening Gyre

Ancient linear measures expressed fractions of the earth's dimensions (polar diameter, circumference, radius, meridian circumference), generally in units of 12. Thus, we have 360 degrees of latitude, each of 60 minutes of 3600 seconds.

Cross-culturally, ancient units of measure relate proportionately to each other, because the old units (whether Mesopotamian, Greek, Egyptian, Roman, Chinese, etc.) represent fractions of the earth's dimensions. Russian archaeologist Bieliaev, points out that the same weights with the same subdivisions are found in early Rome and India of the third millennium B.C. He traced connecting links to Sumer and Egypt, and found the same units used in medieval Russia.

In ancient times, the Universe meant the observable Universe. For Pythagorean and Platonist thinkers, the patterns of numerical relationships which occur in the processes of arithmetic and geometry were considered the formative influences behind all of nature's phenomena. Numerical patterns were detected in the manifestations and dynamics of nature. Behind this is a philosophy of numbers which express universal relationships.

Although usually superceded by practical arithmetic, there is much to learn from the study of the relationship of number and form. The essence of all matter is dynamic relationships. Number is the 'first paradigm,' the basic ordering principle of nature.

Transient, Eternal or Cyclic?

Many so-called "key numbers of the Solar System" are involved, because key numbers have always stood out for their unique properties. The ancients discovered them through aeons of empirical observations of cosmic cycles. They were capable of observing long-term effects, (such as the precessional cycle), with horizon-based astronomy. Their observations of the divine order were central to the core of their civilizations.

Ancient metrology does provide a clue to what numbers might be interesting to investigate.

*Syndex II*(Miller) follows the clues by using direct observation of natural number behavior displayed in a spiral, rather than interpretation of what is there to be seen. Certain numbers graphically call attention to themselves. It requires no ancient, alien, or mystical source, no occult doctrine or arcane secret, no ideology. It predicts no "end time." It is simply a graphically revealed "truth."#108 as the Hindu number of the Universe is a circular totality which encodes the structure of Epochs or Divine Ages. Since the incremental 'numbers of the ages' are multiples of #108, when enspiralled along 108 axes, the characters 0 - 6480 all align along the zero/108 axis -- they naturally share the same neighborhood when displayed as "Mandalogs" or "Holotomes". (Miller & Marshall, Syndex I)

**By starting with 6 (the first perfect number) and multiplying by the primes in their natural order, we get the sequence 12, 24, 72, 360, 2520, 27720, 360360, 6126120, etc. Each of these numbers forms a geometrical entity, a circular unity, (Holotome). These numbers just happen to be the exact sequence of minimal sums that accomodate the maximal amount of factors of division. Their synergetic qualities have remained unnoticed in classical number theory.**

**The synchrographic structure of the two ancient Hindu modules of circular unity disclose that the Yugas fall into a perfect tertiary symmetry. The Ages assume a perfect quadric symmetry when spiralled along 108 axes of a number field, array, or matrix. The final number of this synchrograph is 6480. The number of zeros at the end of any astronomical Hindu number is nearly arbitrary. The glyph unifies the two ancient systems.**

Sacred Measurement

In antiquity, knowledge of an alphanumerical canon spread throughout the Middle East, to Greece and India, back to the Moslem Empire, and from there into medieval Europe to catalyze the Renaissance. India raised mathematics to a high art with its most revered number 108, the number of OM and the Universe, the number of Brahma.

This number formed the basis of the Ages and Yugas, which are all multiples of this sacred numberword. Yugas include 432, 864, 1296, 1728 and add to 4320. Ages include 648, 1296, 1944, 2592 and add to 6480.

108 is itself 3 x 36--part of the Sumerian sar, 3600, also dubbed the number of the Universe, a unit of Divine Time, a year of the gods (3,600 earth-years). The number of zeros tacked on the end of these cosmological numbers is almost irrelevant, and merely emphasizes their vast importance.

Since 108 is 3 x 36 and both systems mutually include the square of 36 (1296), it becomes evident that the classic 360 degree circular unity is the common denominator of these separate systems (360 degrees of 60 minutes or 3600 seconds each).

According to Neugebauer (1952), "the division of the circumference of a circle into 360 parts originated in Babylonian astronomy of the last centuries B.C. The sexagesimal number system as such is many centuries older and has nothing to do with astronomical concepts."

However, in a far newer work, Sumerian scholar Zecharia Sitchen (1993) differs in opinion, attributing both mathematical astronomy and 360 circular unity to the Sumerians, based on his own cuneiform translations. He also refers to "the role that the key number 12 played in Sumerian science," and the "celestial 72," which comes from the precessional shift of 1 degree. He notes that 120 sars equals 432,000 earth-years. This is the number of the Great Yuga.

The key to Sumerian metrology is not as simple as the sexigesimal 6 x 60 = 360. Even in Sumeria, the sexigesimal system (60-division) was only applied in strictly mathematical and astronomical contexts. The sexagesimal numerical system had a decimal substratum (36 x 10 = 360). In other matters they used 24-division, 12-division, 10-division, and 2-division.

The real key involves the sequence in which prime numbers naturally occur in the baseten continuum. This is demonstated by multipling the third and fourth Holotomes together: 72 x 360 = 25920, a number given for the Precession of the Equinoxes in Sumerian cuneiform records. Clearly, this number relates directly to Yugas and Ages.

72 x 36 = 25920 divided by 2 = 12960;

divided by 3 = 8640

by 4 = 6480; by 6 = 4320

72 + 360 = 432

Contemplation of the numberwheel 108 discloses the complete menagery of "sacred numbers." 864 is 12 x 72, holotomes A and C; 1728 is 24 x 72, holotomes B and C.

Both systems share 362 = 1296.

Mathematical Wisdom

Contemplation of this number wheel discloses the complete menagery of "sacred numbers." The key numbers of ancient metrology and the Holotomic Sequence are found in positions of perfect symmetry (such as the quadratic array of the four-digit palindromic sequence: 1881, 2772, 3663, 4554) where only chaos exists in classical number theory. Nature's behaviors coincide with the most crucial divisions of the synergetic continuum of baseten number.

The main thread of the number concept in the crossroads cultures passed from Sumeria-Akkadia-Babylonia to Phoenicia to Hellenistic (and Hebrew), to Indian to Islamic to European cultures. Key numbers, cosmic cycles, and divine numbers permeate the number concepts of all these cultures. The Greeks and Hebrews had alphanumeric systems which developed into numerology and numberword mysticism.

Number mystics from the Pythagoreans onward considered number 'one' as the Infinite God, the First Cause, the One who transcends all multiplicity. To the Greeks, numbers were divine concepts, ideas in the mind the god who had fashioned the world. God was a great mathematician. In the Hebrew Qabala, the world is made with numbers and letters. In more accurate terms, the characters representing manifestation were alphanumeric.

The SEFIR YETZIRAH, the Book of Creation or Formation (300-600 AD) describes how God created the manifest universe by means of letters and numbers which are the foundation of all things. The letters are part of 'one body,' the alphabet which is an extension of God's own being. All created things, made by means of the letters, are also parts of the one body which is God.

True being for the Hebrew is the 'word,' dabhar, which comprises all Hebraic realities: word, deed, and concrete object. Non-being, nothing (no thing) is signified correspondingly by 'not word,' lo dabhar.

In European magical tradition, the most important of all alphanumeric alphabets is the Hebrew which had 22 letters, all of which were consonants. Vowels were inferred from context Contemplation (theory) and application (practice) is the mystical tradition of Qabala. In this alphabet there are no vowels (our a,e,i,o, and u) represented. The same is true of the older Phoenician (Canaanite) alphabet, from which our own alphabet is descended--by way of the Greek, Etruscan, and Latin alphabets.

All over the ancient orient, in Assyria and Babylonia, as well as Egypt, the word and particularly the word of God, was not only nor even primarily an expression of thought; it was a mighty and dynamic force. The Assyrians and Babylonians conceived of the divine word under the image of a physical-cosmic power.

In Egypt, the power of creating and sustaining everything was traced back to the divine word, the ever-active fluid or ethereal divine substance proceeding out of the mouth of divinity. For example, in Memphis, Ptah is the Creator of the world. The specific organ of creation is 'the mouth which named all things.'

There is an ancient code of numbers and proportion based on metrological standards of measure. Such constants as astronomical Precession, and geodetic measures such as polar diameter provided the basic context. Fractions of the earth's principle dimensions mirrored numerical patterns in the appearance and movement of nature.

These numbers are the vestiges of the Sumerian sexagesimal system and calendar. Earlier measures of astronomy, astrology, and cosmology were usually in units of 12, as were various ancient units of measurement of time.

Constants of Nature

Mankind counted days and the changing of the moon and seasons for millennia before recorded history. As early as 3760 BC, the Sumerians created a lunar calendar. By 2800 B.C., they had worked our a cycle of 19 years which kept it synchronized with the solar year and seasons. Certain years had 12 lunar months, while others had thirteen. This lunar calendar was adapted by the Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Greeks and Jews. The Nippur calendar is still the basis of Jewish religious ceremonies. The Hebrew year in 2009 is 5769.

Sumerian astronomy included the concept of "deep time," as recounted in the Enuma Elish, the Epic of Creation. Ancient texts known as the Sumerian King Lists describe the settling of the divine Anunnaki on Earth before the deluge. They list the governorships of the first 10 leaders which lasted a total of 120 sars, or 432,000 Earth-years.

This is a direct source for divine eras in Hindu lore, but they expand the vastness to an overall time span of 4,320,000, and then to a Divine Year or Day of Lord Brahma--4,320,000,000--a thousandfold great yugas. The Sumerian formula is echoed in the Hindu traditions.

Sacred Measurement

In antiquity, knowledge of an alphanumerical canon spread throughout the Middle East, to Greece and India, back to the Moslem Empire, and from there into medieval Europe to catalyze the Renaissance. India raised mathematics to a high art with its most revered number 108, the number of OM and the Universe, the number of Brahma.

This number formed the basis of the Ages and Yugas, which are all multiples of this sacred numberword. Yugas include 432, 864, 1296, 1728 and add to 4320. Ages include 648, 1296, 1944, 2592 and add to 6480.

108 is itself 3 x 36--part of the Sumerian sar, 3600, also dubbed the number of the Universe, a unit of Divine Time, a year of the gods (3,600 earth-years). The number of zeros tacked on the end of these cosmological numbers is almost irrelevant, and merely emphasizes their vast importance.

Since 108 is 3 x 36 and both systems mutually include the square of 36 (1296), it becomes evident that the classic 360 degree circular unity is the common denominator of these separate systems (360 degrees of 60 minutes or 3600 seconds each).

According to Neugebauer (1952), "the division of the circumference of a circle into 360 parts originated in Babylonian astronomy of the last centuries B.C. The sexagesimal number system as such is many centuries older and has nothing to do with astronomical concepts."

However, in a far newer work, Sumerian scholar Zecharia Sitchen (1993) differs in opinion, attributing both mathematical astronomy and 360 circular unity to the Sumerians, based on his own cuneiform translations. He also refers to "the role that the key number 12 played in Sumerian science," and the "celestial 72," which comes from the precessional shift of 1 degree. He notes that 120 sars equals 432,000 earth-years. This is the number of the Great Yuga.

The key to Sumerian metrology is not as simple as the sexigesimal 6 x 60 = 360. Even in Sumeria, the sexigesimal system (60-division) was only applied in strictly mathematical and astronomical contexts. The sexagesimal numerical system had a decimal substratum (36 x 10 = 360). In other matters they used 24-division, 12-division, 10-division, and 2-division.

The real key involves the sequence in which prime numbers naturally occur in the baseten continuum. This is demonstated by multipling the third and fourth Holotomes together: 72 x 360 = 25920, a number given for the Precession of the Equinoxes in Sumerian cuneiform records. Clearly, this number relates directly to Yugas and Ages.

72 x 36 = 25920 divided by 2 = 12960;

divided by 3 = 8640

by 4 = 6480; by 6 = 4320

72 + 360 = 432

Contemplation of the numberwheel 108 discloses the complete menagery of "sacred numbers." 864 is 12 x 72, holotomes A and C; 1728 is 24 x 72, holotomes B and C.

Both systems share 362 = 1296.

Mathematical Wisdom

Contemplation of this number wheel discloses the complete menagery of "sacred numbers." The key numbers of ancient metrology and the Holotomic Sequence are found in positions of perfect symmetry (such as the quadratic array of the four-digit palindromic sequence: 1881, 2772, 3663, 4554) where only chaos exists in classical number theory. Nature's behaviors coincide with the most crucial divisions of the synergetic continuum of baseten number.

The main thread of the number concept in the crossroads cultures passed from Sumeria-Akkadia-Babylonia to Phoenicia to Hellenistic (and Hebrew), to Indian to Islamic to European cultures. Key numbers, cosmic cycles, and divine numbers permeate the number concepts of all these cultures. The Greeks and Hebrews had alphanumeric systems which developed into numerology and numberword mysticism.

Number mystics from the Pythagoreans onward considered number 'one' as the Infinite God, the First Cause, the One who transcends all multiplicity. To the Greeks, numbers were divine concepts, ideas in the mind the god who had fashioned the world. God was a great mathematician. In the Hebrew Qabala, the world is made with numbers and letters. In more accurate terms, the characters representing manifestation were alphanumeric.

The SEFIR YETZIRAH, the Book of Creation or Formation (300-600 AD) describes how God created the manifest universe by means of letters and numbers which are the foundation of all things. The letters are part of 'one body,' the alphabet which is an extension of God's own being. All created things, made by means of the letters, are also parts of the one body which is God.

True being for the Hebrew is the 'word,' dabhar, which comprises all Hebraic realities: word, deed, and concrete object. Non-being, nothing (no thing) is signified correspondingly by 'not word,' lo dabhar.

In European magical tradition, the most important of all alphanumeric alphabets is the Hebrew which had 22 letters, all of which were consonants. Vowels were inferred from context Contemplation (theory) and application (practice) is the mystical tradition of Qabala. In this alphabet there are no vowels (our a,e,i,o, and u) represented. The same is true of the older Phoenician (Canaanite) alphabet, from which our own alphabet is descended--by way of the Greek, Etruscan, and Latin alphabets.

All over the ancient orient, in Assyria and Babylonia, as well as Egypt, the word and particularly the word of God, was not only nor even primarily an expression of thought; it was a mighty and dynamic force. The Assyrians and Babylonians conceived of the divine word under the image of a physical-cosmic power.

In Egypt, the power of creating and sustaining everything was traced back to the divine word, the ever-active fluid or ethereal divine substance proceeding out of the mouth of divinity. For example, in Memphis, Ptah is the Creator of the world. The specific organ of creation is 'the mouth which named all things.'

There is an ancient code of numbers and proportion based on metrological standards of measure. Such constants as astronomical Precession, and geodetic measures such as polar diameter provided the basic context. Fractions of the earth's principle dimensions mirrored numerical patterns in the appearance and movement of nature.

These numbers are the vestiges of the Sumerian sexagesimal system and calendar. Earlier measures of astronomy, astrology, and cosmology were usually in units of 12, as were various ancient units of measurement of time.

Constants of Nature

Mankind counted days and the changing of the moon and seasons for millennia before recorded history. As early as 3760 BC, the Sumerians created a lunar calendar. By 2800 B.C., they had worked our a cycle of 19 years which kept it synchronized with the solar year and seasons. Certain years had 12 lunar months, while others had thirteen. This lunar calendar was adapted by the Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Greeks and Jews. The Nippur calendar is still the basis of Jewish religious ceremonies. The Hebrew year in 2009 is 5769.

Sumerian astronomy included the concept of "deep time," as recounted in the Enuma Elish, the Epic of Creation. Ancient texts known as the Sumerian King Lists describe the settling of the divine Anunnaki on Earth before the deluge. They list the governorships of the first 10 leaders which lasted a total of 120 sars, or 432,000 Earth-years.

This is a direct source for divine eras in Hindu lore, but they expand the vastness to an overall time span of 4,320,000, and then to a Divine Year or Day of Lord Brahma--4,320,000,000--a thousandfold great yugas. The Sumerian formula is echoed in the Hindu traditions.

From Sumeria comes the ubiquitous concept of a sky divided into 360 degrees of Latitude, 60 minutes of 3600 seconds; 12 month years beginning on Spring Equinox; 12 hours of day and night (2x12=24); 12 signs of the Zodiac, etc.

Sumerian fractions were geared to the principle of repeated halving. Whole unit or natural fractions are important in arranging metrological units. The system based on 60 is evenly divisibly by 2,3,4,5,6,10,15, and 30 eliminating the frequent need of fractions. This naturally leads to grouping higher units in 12, 30, or 60. All these ratios occur in one or another of the parallel systems of units in Mesopotamian metrology. 4320 is one such number; so is 108000.

The Greek astronomers adopted this system, and so did their followers in India, the Islamic Empire, and Europe. Much of the mathematical knowledge commonly ascribed to the early Greek philosophers was already known to the Egyptians and Mesopotamians centuries before the rise of Greek civilization. However, the Greeks preserved and spread this knowledge. They were the first to consider mathematical concepts as abstractions not part of the real world, but of the idealized "sacred space" of the human mind.

There is some evidence of ancient India having direct contact with Sumeria around 2500 B.C. This is difficult to document, but not to deduce. However, nevertheless, Hindus contributed the final step to mathematical astronomy, namely, the use of the place value notation for the smaller decimal units. This is where we get our divisions of 60, 24, 12, and 2.

As we have shown elsewhere, these are closely allied to the HOLOTOMIC SEQUENCE: 12 - 24 - 72 - 360 - 2520, etc. These numbers are the vestiges of the Sumerian sexagesimal system and calendar rooted in Precession cycles and natural number dynamics.

REFERENCES

Berriman, A.E. (1953) Historical Metrology

Knorr, W. R. (1985), The geometer and the archaeoastronomers: on the prehistoric origins of mathematics. Review of: Geometry and algebra in ancient civilizations [Springer, Berlin, 1983; MR: 85b:01001] by B. L. van der Waerden. British J. Hist. Sci. 18 (1985), no. 59, part 2, 197--212. SC: 01A10, MR: 87k:01003.

Michell, J. (1981), Ancient Metrology,

Miller, Iona and Robert Marshall (1998), SYNDEX II, A synergetic revisioning of number dynamics in light of ancient metrology and modern cosmography www.geocities.com/numeronom...dexii.html

Scherz, Old World Units of Measure Found in the Layout Geometry of Prehistoric Earthworks at Newark, Ohio By Dr James P Scherz www.midwesternepigraphic.org/scherz.html

Sitchen, Zecharia (1997), When Time Began, Avon; New York.

From Sumeria comes the ubiquitous concept of a sky divided into 360 degrees of Latitude, 60 minutes of 3600 seconds; 12 month years beginning on Spring Equinox; 12 hours of day and night (2x12=24); 12 signs of the Zodiac, etc.

Sumerian fractions were geared to the principle of repeated halving. Whole unit or natural fractions are important in arranging metrological units. The system based on 60 is evenly divisibly by 2,3,4,5,6,10,15, and 30 eliminating the frequent need of fractions. This naturally leads to grouping higher units in 12, 30, or 60. All these ratios occur in one or another of the parallel systems of units in Mesopotamian metrology. 4320 is one such number; so is 108000.

The Greek astronomers adopted this system, and so did their followers in India, the Islamic Empire, and Europe. Much of the mathematical knowledge commonly ascribed to the early Greek philosophers was already known to the Egyptians and Mesopotamians centuries before the rise of Greek civilization. However, the Greeks preserved and spread this knowledge. They were the first to consider mathematical concepts as abstractions not part of the real world, but of the idealized "sacred space" of the human mind.

There is some evidence of ancient India having direct contact with Sumeria around 2500 B.C. This is difficult to document, but not to deduce. However, nevertheless, Hindus contributed the final step to mathematical astronomy, namely, the use of the place value notation for the smaller decimal units. This is where we get our divisions of 60, 24, 12, and 2.

As we have shown elsewhere, these are closely allied to the HOLOTOMIC SEQUENCE: 12 - 24 - 72 - 360 - 2520, etc. These numbers are the vestiges of the Sumerian sexagesimal system and calendar rooted in Precession cycles and natural number dynamics.

REFERENCES

Berriman, A.E. (1953) Historical Metrology

Knorr, W. R. (1985), The geometer and the archaeoastronomers: on the prehistoric origins of mathematics. Review of: Geometry and algebra in ancient civilizations [Springer, Berlin, 1983; MR: 85b:01001] by B. L. van der Waerden. British J. Hist. Sci. 18 (1985), no. 59, part 2, 197--212. SC: 01A10, MR: 87k:01003.

Michell, J. (1981), Ancient Metrology,

Miller, Iona and Robert Marshall (1998), SYNDEX II, A synergetic revisioning of number dynamics in light of ancient metrology and modern cosmography www.geocities.com/numeronom...dexii.html

Scherz, Old World Units of Measure Found in the Layout Geometry of Prehistoric Earthworks at Newark, Ohio By Dr James P Scherz www.midwesternepigraphic.org/scherz.html

Sitchen, Zecharia (1997), When Time Began, Avon; New York.

THE AURIC KEY: SYNDEX I and SYNDEX II by Iona Miller and Robert "Bob" Marshall

*Syndex I & II*are about the spiritual and universal beauty of numbers. They reflect the order and beauty of nature, but also of psyche. According to Jung, number unifies the physical and psychic (as in "realm of the psyche", not fortunetelling) worlds through synchronicity. Jung's basic ideas about the unity of knowledge and existence are in principle synonymous with the Platonic tradition, alchemy, Qabala and Gnosticism. Plato treated the end product of the evolution of mathematical concepts, (a fixed system of idealized objects), as an independent beginning point of the evolution of the "world of things." This concrete form of philosophy was determined by the nature of Greek mathematics.**These philosophies seek to reconcile the actual condition with a hypothetical distant ideal, which expansively incorporates both personal and universal dimensions. It is an inward-oriented epistemology. By intuitive perception we can consciously reiterate the laws of Nature and mind which are equivalent to the archetypes themselves. Belief in the essential aspect of the mathematical as a real world, a "last reality" underlies the surprising efficiency of mathematics in the natural sciences and technology.**

**But are numbers really abstract entities existing independently of the human mind? What is the nature of mathematical truth, and how is it translated into mathematical knowledge? If it exists in another "ideal world", how can we know anything at all about the subject-matter of mathematics? What collective criteria determines the nature, terms and rules of this world?**

**In the Jungian view, numbers (like other archetypes of the collective unconscious) are contents and patterns of behavior which are not personally acquired in experience but are inborn. The Platonic Forms are the objects of knowledge, which is regarded as innate. They can emerge dynamically as well as imagistically. The essential nature of the Forms is dual: unity and multiplicity, finitude and infinitude. "The One" is the origin of Forms in the same way that the psyche is the origin of the archetypes.**

**Because they form a primary conceptual language, numbers have heavily influenced the development of culture, philosophy and myth as well as sciences such as cosmology. 'Number is All' was the Pythagorean motto. Numbers were symbols representing cosmic principles. The whole philosophy of numbers came from distinctions created by the primordial division of the One into multiplicity. Because of their archetypal essence, their mode of articulation is essentially mythic and radically symbolic.**

**Mathematics, by the very nature of its method, is an essentially Platonic pursuit. Mathematicians treat the objects of their investigations as real objects in a hypostasized space,**

*as if*they existed independently in some pure world of their own. Thus, they reason that the amount of prime numbers is "infinite." Discussing the amount of prime numbers, mathematicians believe that they are discussing objects as real as collections of things in their everyday life.**We use numbers casually and rigorously as a language to order space. Since ancient times, their archetypal dynamics have been the foundation of philosophy, religious, and artistic thought. Patterns of dynamic energy in numbers reflect patterns of nature--the order of the universe. Whether they actually**

*form*the basis of the universe is the subject of ongoing debate among many schools of mathematicians. The qualitative distinctions we make between phenomena are fundamentally numerical. We still don't know why the universe appears to follow mathematical laws. However, as Hilbert has suggested, we do know that the idea of the Infinite deviates significantly from the situation in the physical Universe.**Are numbers and functions the inventions of mathematicians, or do they exist independently of us? Just because a mathematical object can possibly exist doesn't mean it actually**

*does*exist. Yet, mathematicians imagine they are talking about real objects, when they may be talking about stabilized concepts. The new direction in the philosophy of mathematics is a "*quasi-empirical approach that treats mathematics as just another messy experimental science.*" A partially unconscious process of idealization ends in the stable concept of numbers, points, lines, spheres.**When working in geometry, a mathematician does not investigate the relations of real things. He investigates some idealized, fixed notion of these relations. This notion is subjectively treated as "reality" without any fundamental reality behind it. It can, therefore, arguably be considered art as well as science. In practice, mathematicians jump to conclusions, and after the jump has been made begin the labor of proving the theorem or constructing a coherent theory. This involves subconscious reasoning, tenacity, focus, judgement, concentration, elementary intuition, free association, and conceptual visualization.**

**Some say mathematics is a purely human construct, an artifact of our nervous systems and culture. Others attest that even chimps and infants are hard-wired by evolution for arithmetic to deal with real objects in the real world. Numbers are not Platonic ideals but neurological creations. Integers, like colors, are artifacts of our sensory processing mechanisms.**

**Dehaene traces the arithmetical model to the inferior parietal cortex. This poorly understood location is where visual, auditory, tactile signals, and language processing converge. Mathematics, or at least mathematical notation, is another human languge. It also appears to be the language of nature, and therefore physical reality. Of the infinite range of mathematical creations, scientists keep those that help explain and predict reality.**

**The concept of natural numbers is a fixed model, an idealization of quantitative relations which ends in stable concepts of numbers. The dynamics of those numbers are described in number theory. Number theory, one of the oldest branches of pure mathematics, concerns elementary properties of primes, divisibility among integers, the existence of greatest common divisors, the study of specific families of numbers, simple recurrent relations, factorization, and more. Syndex addresses these aspects with easy to state conjectures which can be understood and observed in graphics without any particular mathematical training.**

**Mathematical Platonism concerns the investigation of fixed or self-contained models. The Platonic Idea or Form is essentially an unchangeable form. As symbols, numbers express the particular in the universal, the eternal in the finite. They express the ordering function of their archetypal nature. The Neoplatonists assumed an a priori structure of knowledge grounded in archetypal forms and directed toward a unification of the ultimate principle of "the One" with the diverse phenomena of "the Many." This could also apply to the number field.**

**We contend that the Holotomes are such self-contained models of holistic, self-reflective, finite portions of the number continuum. Holotomes are geometrically symmetrical, modular unities, based on the minimal numbers divisible by the the maximal factors of division. Each holotome adds an additional factor of divisibility to its circular unity. All base digits are captured by the number 2520.**

**THE POLE OF THE ECLIPTIC**

A new study suggests that the Giza Pyramids might have been deliberately 'anchored' to the pole of the ecliptic at two distinct epochs by making use of certain stars, of religious importance to the Pyramid Builders, found in the circumpolar and non-circumpolar constellations. Such a hypothesis fortifies the possibility that the Pyramid Builders of Egypt were aware of the Precession of the Equinoxes.

There has been an ongoing heated debate between researchers in archaeoastronomy and Egyptologists as to whether the ancient pyramid builders of Egypt were aware of the phenomenon known as the precession of the equinoxes. In simple and brief terms, the precession of the equinoxes is the result of a very slow wobble-like gyration of the earth that takes around 26,000 years. The 'discovery' of the precession of the equinoxes is attributed to the Alexandrian-Greek astronomer Hipparchus in around 130 BC, and Egyptologists and historians in general totally reject the idea that the Egyptians might have known of the phenomenon thousands of years before. This view was recently voiced again in the international press based on the content of an article in the journal Nature by Dr. Kate Spence, an Egyptologist from Cambridge University [1].

Contrary to popular opinion, the apparent effect of precession is quite noticeable in the sky across a few centuries, as there is considerable change in the position of stars that can be easily picked up by naked-eye observations. Indeed, Philip Morrison of MIT noted that to discover precession requires only a tree (solar gnomon) and faith in the veracity of one's grandfather (an oral record). Thus over the 700 years or so that led from the formation of the ancient Egyptian civilisation in c. 3200 BC to the start of the 4th Dynasty in c. 2500 BC, the rising place (known in astronomy as the azimuth) of stars such as, say, those in Orion's belt, would have changed by as much as 3ï¿½ on the horizon, and as much as 2.5ï¿½ at culmination on the meridian. This alone has led many modern researchers to remark that it would have been unlikely for a people like the ancient Egyptians, who were very keen and avid observers of the sky and stars, not to be aware of the precessional shift, even though they might not have understood its underlying cause or have been able to compute it mathematically [2]. In 1894 the British astronomer, Sir Norman Lockyer (1836-1920), the 'father of archaeoastronomy', brought further evidence in support of this view, in his book

*The Dawn of Astronomy*(1894), when he demonstrated that the ancient Egyptians' aligned their temples to stars rising in the east and often changed the alignment of the temple in order to take into account the drift caused by precession. Although Lockyer was largely ignored by the Egyptologists, a century later the same findings were reported by the American astronomer R.A. Wells for temples such as the Satet temple of Isis on Elephantine Island in Upper Egypt [3]. It was not until 1964 that Lockyer's findings prompted the well-known MIT professor Giorgio de Santillana to conclude that:

*"When a stellar temple is oriented so accurately that it requires several reconstructions at intervals of a few centuries, which involved each time the rebuilding of its narrow alignment on a star, and the wrecking of the main symmetry that goes with it; when Zodiacs, like that of Denderah, are deliberately depicted in the appearance they would have had centuries before, as if to date the changes, then it is not reasonable to suppose the Egyptians were unaware of the precession of the equinoxes, even if their mathematics was unable to predict it numerically. Lockyer let the facts speak for themselves, but it is he who has given the proof. Actually, the Egyptians do describe the Precession, but in a language usually written off as mythological or religious."*[4]

There are several astronomers who are open to the idea that the ancient Egyptians knew of precession [5], but as far as I can tell, the only Egyptologist who openly supports Santillana's view is the American scholar Jane B. Sellers [6]. The rest either choose to ignore it or attempt to disprove and discredit this idea at every opportunity [7]. It is well-known that my colleague Graham Hancock and I fully endorse Santillana's views, and that we have also argued that the pyramid builders of Giza not only were aware of Precession but also incorporated its principles in their architecture for religious and ritual purposes [8]. In this present article I will review another aspect of the Old Kingdom pyramids which also demonstrates this fact, but from a totally different and new viewpoint.

The Earth tilts some 23ï¿½ 26' from the plane of the ecliptic. This angle, however, changes fractionally in cycles of 40,000 years from a minimum of about 22ï¿½ 6' to a maximum of about 24ï¿½ 30' due to a phenomenon known as the obliquity of the ecliptic. Calculations show that the angle of tilt has been steadily decreasing since the beginning of recorded history, c.3500 BC, at the average rate of about 40" per century. Using the accepted rigid formula [9], it can be shown that in c. 2500 BC, when the construction of the Giza pyramids began, the tilt of the earth's axis was 23ï¿½ 58'. The Giza pyramid site is at latitude of 29 59', which means that the north celestial pole of the sky was at an altitude of 29ï¿½ 59'.

We always think in terms of the north celestial pole as being the focal point of the sky, an immovable imaginary point around which all the fixed stars seems to revolve in concentric circles. So entrenched is this idea that we ignore or are unaware that this imaginary point is not the true focal point of the sky at all. And even though the idea that the north celestial pole is a fixed point holds true for a very short period of time, the statement becomes invalid over long periods of time because of precession. The fact is that the north celestial pole drifts away from the fixed field of stars at the rate of about 20" arc seconds a year due to the perpetual wobble-like cycle of our planet. Furthermore, the north celestial pole will keep on drifting from the fixed star field up to a full 47 (about one quarter of the visible sky field) over its 26,000 years cycle. This is hardly a fixed point in terms of cosmic time. There is, however, another point in the sky which drifts away from the fixed star field at the very much slower rate of 0.4 arc seconds per year, that is 50 times slower than the drift of the north celestial pole and thus, by true definition, making it the real focal point of the sky. This point is known as pole of the ecliptic. Furthermore, the pole of the ecliptic will only displace itself a mere 2.5 over its 40,000 years cycle.

**The pole of the ecliptic is located in the heart of the constellation of Draco,**approximately between the stars Zeta Draco and Al Tais. Assuming that the ancient astronomer-priests of Egypt began observing and recording the position of stars some 200 years before the dynastic period, say c. 3500 BC, up to the start of the 4th Dynasty in c.2500 BC, a simple calculation shows that the position of the pole of the ecliptic would have displaced itself by only 6 minutes of arc (0.1ï¿½), over this whole 1000 year period. On the other hand, the north celestial pole would have been displaced by 333 minutes of arc (5.55ï¿½). Imagine a dartboard where one dart (the pole of the ecliptic) is 1 cm away from the bull's eye and another (north celestial pole) is 50 cm away, and you will get the picture. The pole of the ecliptic will cross the meridian twice each day i.e. upper and lower culmination. Calculations show that during the Pyramid Age, and as seen from the latitude of Giza (29ï¿½ 59'), the pole of the ecliptic would have had its upper culmination at the meridian at an altitude of 53ï¿½ 57' (29ï¿½ 59' + 23ï¿½ 58'). The table below shows the altitude of the pole of the ecliptic at upper culmination at the meridian at different latitudes/locations in Lower and Middle Egypt, roughly encompassing the region of pyramid building during the Old Kingdom:

Location

Latitude

Upper culmination of Pole of the Ecliptic

Abu Ruwash

30ï¿½ 02'

54ï¿½ 00'

Giza

29ï¿½ 59'

53ï¿½ 57'

Dashur

29ï¿½ 45'

53ï¿½ 43'

Hawara

29ï¿½15'

53ï¿½ 13'

Wadi Sannur

29ï¿½ 00'

52ï¿½ 58'

Beni Hassan

28ï¿½ 00'

51ï¿½ 58'

El Amarna

27ï¿½ 30'

51ï¿½ 28'

Copyright © 2010-2015 Iona Miller, All Rights Reserved.

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**iona_m@yahoo.com**FAIR USE NOTICE

This site may contains some copyrighted material which has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding and knowledge through educational issues. This constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law, in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107. The material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.

The owners and publishers of these pages wish to state that the material presented here that is the product of our research is offered with the caveat that the reader ought always to research on their own. We invite the reader to share in our Seeking of Truth by reading with an Open, but skeptical mind. We constantly seek to validate and/or refine what we understand to be either possible or probable or both. We do this in the sincere hope that all of mankind will benefit, if not now, then at some point in one of our probable futures. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner